FEATURE4 January 2017
FEATURE4 January 2017
Hopefully four days in your resolutions are holding, but if your determination wanes, The Behavioural Architects’ Crawford Hollingworth has some tips on achieving your goals.
How are you getting on with your New Year’s resolutions? A few days in and are you still on track? Or do you reckon that by February those good intentions will be just that – good intentions with a whole string of excuses for why they never materialised into an actual change.
Most of us struggle with a well-known phenomenon in behavioural science called the intention-behaviour gap – where people have strong, good intentions to do something but never actually get around to doing it, or start, but don’t sustain it and give up.
So what can we learn from behavioural science about how to make sure we succeed in meeting our resolutions? Below are four tips grounded in behavioural insights which can help with your resolutions, be they to save more money, pay off debt, eat more healthily, or get fit.
1. Make a plan
One of the most promising strategies is the action plan. Behavioural scientists term this implementation intentions and it has been rigorously tested across many behaviour change initiatives, including health and exercise related ones.
It involves specifying when, where and how you are going to ‘do’ a behaviour or work towards a goal. Peter Gollwitzer, professor of psychology at New York University, who has carried out considerable research on this strategy over nearly 20 years says: “Not only do your goals have to be desirable, achievable and have a specific outcome, you also need to think about the when, where and how.”
So how do you make an action plan? One trial asked participants to complete the following statement to plan to do more exercise:
“During the next week, I will partake in at least 20 minutes of vigorous exercise on [DAY] at [TIME OF DAY] at/in [PLACE].”
Another initiative to increase physical activity required participants to answer four questions in order to formulate their plan:
In several recent large-scale reviews (known as meta-analyses) of programmes to get people more active, those using action plans found a consistent uplift. Using action plans tended to see higher and more consistent physical activity levels over the long term than other initiatives.
2. Substitute old behaviour for new behaviour
If you want to give something up, it can be hard to fill the void it leaves and can make it more tempting to start the behaviour again. Smoking, drinking and unhealthy eating habits are good examples of habits which leave a tricky void that seems to demand filling. Habits are wired into the neural networks of our brain. We can, with a lot of effort, overwrite them, but they will always be there, lurking beneath the surface. A habit is something we do automatically, usually cued by something in our immediate surroundings or an emotional cue – perhaps when we get stressed or upset.
So substituting a bad habit with a new, better habit can be a good solution. It helps to explain the success of e-cigarettes – people don’t have to change the physical habit of smoking, they switch their traditional cigarettes with the new electronic type and they can vape away.
Another useful application is around getting control of our finances and reducing spending in areas where we are apt to throw caution to the wind… The UK’s Money Advice Service (MAS) recently ran a trial with households under financial strain asking them to select a costly spending habit which they might substitute with a less expensive one, allowing them to save money while enjoying a small reward.
They were given a debit/credit card holder and asked to write down specifically what they intended to avoid purchasing and what they might do or buy instead. For example, some participants avoided spending on costly food items and rewarded themselves with a cake in a local café, still creating a net saving, but also enabling them to enjoy a reward for their efforts. Participants were asked to record on the card holder when they successfully substituted a purchase.
We know from research into habitual behaviours that there is usually some kind of reward in every habit we do, whether a tangible or more psychological reward. This helps to explain why giving something up which has become habitual is hard to do because we miss the reward the habit delivers. The substitution exercise gave people a new reward so that there remained an emotional ‘hit’ and incentive.
MAS found that people tended to be more successful in this intervention when their substitute provided an equally enjoyable reward. Strong intrinsic motivation to succeed was also important.
Substituting a new behaviour for an old one may not only help us curb our spending but can also help us trim down after the mince-pie based indulgences of the festive season. To develop a healthier lifestyle in the New Year, behavioural scientist Brian Wansink recommends replacing unhealthy snacks with healthy snacks in the house. Instead of giving up snacking entirely and breaking a long established habit, it is easier to simply replace the type of snack we munch on.
3. Make it easy
Only the most determined of people will achieve a goal if it’s not easy to make happen. We can be lazy, cognitive misers; if something feels confusing, requires too much thinking or takes too many steps to make happen, chances are, it won’t happen.
Richard Thaler, professor of behavioural science at the University of Chicago and co-author of the bestselling book Nudge says: “My number-one mantra from Nudge is, ‘Make it easy.’ If you want to get people to eat healthier foods, then put healthier foods in the cafeteria, and make them easier to find, and make them taste better. It’s kind of obvious, but it’s also easy to miss.”
So, for the best chance of success, we need to make our New Year’s resolutions as easy as possible to do – day in, day out. BJ Fogg, a behavioural scientist at Stanford University and expert in behaviour change suggests sitting down initially and setting out ways to make doing a new behaviour (your resolution) easier in the future. For example:
Making a behaviour easy to do also helped students eat healthier food at school: three schools in northern New York wanted to encourage their students to eat more fruit. So they placed fruits in aesthetically pleasing bowls and arranged them in well-lit areas. Choosing to eat fruit became a much simpler decision for students and within the next months, students started to eat more than twice as much fruit.
4. Make only one New Year’s resolution
Our final piece of advice: scrap the long list of worthy resolutions and focus on only one. Research has generally found that we are more successful in achieving goals when we set a single, clear and achievable goal. People who set themselves more than one goal feel overloaded and lack focus.
Research on goal setting has revealed that having too many goals may lead us to focus on those that are easiest to achieve. We prefer quantity over quality and aim to accomplish a large number of easy goals instead of tackling only a few which are more difficult, or the most important ones.
Focusing on one New Year’s resolution also prevents us from being caught between conflicting goals and makes it more likely that we will achieve that chosen one. In a classic study, psychologists Robert Emmons and Laura King asked participants to write down their 15 most important goals and identify if any of them conflicted with each other. The researchers then recorded people’s feelings and perceptions of well-being on a daily basis. Across a range of experiments it became evident that conflicting goals made people unhappy: they started to worry more about completing all their goals, they accomplished less overall and their physical and mental health suffered.
One of the reasons people often give for not meeting a goal, is that they ‘didn’t have time’. Yet what they are actually saying is that they didn’t make it a priority due to other demands (including other goals) in their life. So, making a success of your resolution may mean moving it up your priority list.
One final tip – if you can divide up your goal into smaller chunks so you feel a sense of progress as you ‘hit’ each one, you will find your goal even easier to reach.
Happy New Year.
Thaler quote – “Nudging the world toward a smarter public policy: An interview with Richard Thaler” McKinsey Quarterly 2011
Gollwitzer quote – Linda Geddes, “Achievement unlocked! Use science to keep your new year’s resolutions”, Guardian 6 Dec, 2015
Milne, Orbell and Sheeran “Combining motivational and volitional interventions to promote exercise participation: protection motivation theory and implementation intentions.” British Journal of Healthy Psychology, 2002
Godin, G., Belanger-Gravel, A., Amireault, S., Gallani, M., Vohl, M., & Pe ?russe, L. ( 2010 ). Effect of implementation intentions on behaviour: Moderation by intention stability. Psychological Reports 106( 1 ), 147????159
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